St-Boniface Hospital Research

Dr. Hilary P. Grocott

Dr. Hilary P. Grocott, MD, FRCPC, FASE
Editor-in-Chief, Canadian Journal of Anesthesia
Professor, Department of Anesthesia & Perioperative Medicine
University of Manitoba
Professor, Department of Surgery
University of Manitoba
Director, Cardiac Anesthesia Fellowship Program
University of Manitoba
Adjunct Professor of Anesthesiology
Duke University

Research Focus

Dr. Grocott has been involved in research in Cardiac Surgery and Anesthesia for more than 20 years. His research background, both experimental as well as clinical, has principally focused on the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the brain, but has also examined other adverse outcomes associated with cardiac surgery. This work has included extensive experimental investigation into the mechanisms of cardiac surgery-associated cerebral injury, as well as insights into neuroprotective mechanisms. His clinical research has outlined the incidence, significance and etiology of cerebral injury after cardiac surgery, particularly cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgery, with his current research focusing on neuromonitoring.

Prior to relocating to the University of Manitoba in 2007, his laboratory was well-known for its work in experimental CPB, having developed novel animal models of CPB. These experimental paradigms lead to extensive work performed in both his own laboratory (as well as in those of collaborators), focusing on neurobehavioral and other outcomes after cardiac surgery. It has led to several translational clinical studies involving novel neuroprotective compounds. With the development of these clinical trials, Dr. Grocott transitioned from the animal laboratory to focus exclusively on clinical trials. With many of the mechanisms leading to cerebral injury after cardiac surgery sharing common pathophysiologies with other adverse organ outcomes (such as bleeding, kidney injury, myocardial dysfunction and pulmonary injury), his subsequent clinical investigations have also overlapped into the area of perioperative inflammation and all of its adverse consequences.

Dr. Grocott has previously been funded by the Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research (FAER), Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists (SCA), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Active, ongoing investigations include participation in a multicenter study of cerebral oximetry monitoring in cardiac surgery, as well as a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) funded trial investigating transfusion triggers in cardiac surgery (TRICS-III).

Why is the work important?

Although the optimization of cardiac outcomes is an intuitive focus for patients undergoing cardiac surgery, it is arguably even more important to improve the non-cardiac outcomes in order to benefit overall perioperative outcome in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. As a result, improvement in reducing adverse cerebral affects, coagulation abnormalities, as well as kidney and other organ injury after cardiac surgery, are critical in optimizing patient management. Efforts aimed at improving outcome after cardiac surgery and anesthesia need to be focused on these secondary organs of interest, as much as on the heart itself. As overall improvements in cardiac surgery continue to develop, patients are presenting to the operating room at a much older age with more comorbidities, and thus are at an even higher risk for adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery. Continued efforts are needed to push this envelope of patient care.

About Dr. Grocott

Dr. Grocott was born in Regina, Saskatchewan and obtained his medical education at the University of Saskatchewan, where he graduated with his Doctorate (MD) in 1990. He completed his anesthesia residency at the University of Manitoba in 1995 and continued with a fellowship program in cardiothoracic anesthesiology and research at Duke University in North Carolina. His experimental training in neurosciences was in the laboratory of Dr. David Warner at Duke University, a noted laboratory for the understanding of cerebral ischemia and anesthetic mechanisms of neuroprotection. In 1997, he was invited to join the faculty of Duke University as an Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology and subsequently was promoted to full Professor with tenure in 2007.

Dr. Grocott relocated to the University of Manitoba in 2007, where he currently resides, holding the position of Professor in both the Departments of Anesthesia & Perioperative Medicine and Surgery. He concurrently continues to hold a position as Adjunct Professor of Anesthesiology at Duke University.
In 2014, Dr. Grocott was appointed Editor-in-Chief of the Canadian Journal of Anesthesia where he oversees the annual peer-review of more than 750 manuscripts in anesthesia, critical care and pain medicine.

Dr. Grocott is also a practicing anesthesiologist, spending approximately 50% of his time in both the operating room and intensive care unit, caring for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Through his continued collaboration with colleagues in the field of anesthesia and cardiac surgery, Dr. Grocott has published more than 250 peer-reviewed papers and abstracts, as well as 15 textbook chapters in the area of cardiac anesthesia and surgery. Dr. Grocott is a frequent speaker at national and international conferences, and has also supervised numerous post-graduate trainees.

Top

Refereed Journals:

Grocott HP, Mutch WAC. Epidural anesthesia and acutely increased intracranial pressure: Lumbar epidural space hydrodynamics in a porcine model. Anesthesiology. 1996;85:1086-1091.

Maharajh GS, Pascoe EA, Halliday WC, Grocott HP, Thiessen DB, Girling LG, Cheang MS, Mutch WAC. Neurological outcome in a porcine model of descending thoracic aortic surgery. Left atrial-femoral bypass versus clamp/repair. Stroke. 1996;27:2095-2101.

Grocott HP, Clements F, Landolfo K. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery in a patient with hereditary protein S deficiency. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anes. 1996;10:915-917.

Grocott HP, Newman MF, Lowe JE, Clements F. Transmyocardial laser revascularization: An anesthetic perspective. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anes. 1997;11:206-210.

Grocott HP, Newman MF, Croughwell ND, White WD, Lowry E, Reves JG. Continuous jugular venous versus nasopharyngeal temperature monitoring during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery. J Clin Anesth. 1997;9:312-316.

Tardiff BE, Newman MF, Saunders AM, Strittmatter WJ, White W, Blumenthal JA, White WD, Croughwell ND, Davis RD, Roses AD, Reves JG. Neurologic Outcome Research Group of the Duke Heart Center, Preliminary report of a genetic basis for cognitive decline after cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997;64:715-720.

Grocott HP, Grichnik K, Reves JG. Benzodiazepines in cardiovascular surgery. Sem Cardiothorac Vasc Anes. 1997;1:109-120.

Grocott HP, Amory DW, Lowry E, Newman MF, Lowe JE, Clements FM. Cerebral embolization during transmyocardial laser revascularization. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1997;114:856-858.

Grocott HP, Root J, Berkowitz SD, deBruijn N, Landolfo K. Coagulation complicating cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia receiving the heparinoid, danaparoid sodium (Org 10722). J Cardiothorac Vasc Anes. 1997;11:875-877.

Gerhardt MA, Booth JV, Chesnut LC, Funk BL, El-Moalem HE, Kwatra MM, Schwinn DA and the Duke Heart Center Perioperative Desensitization Group. Acute myocardial bAR dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with cardiac valve disease. Circulation. 1998;98:II-275-281.

Grocott HP, Amory DW, Lowry E, Croughwell ND, Newman MF. Transcranial Doppler blood flow velocity versus 133Xe clearance cerebral blood flow during mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. J Clin Monit Comput. 1998;14:35-39.

Grocott HP, Stafford-Smith M, Glower DD, Clements FM. Endovascular aortic balloon clamp malposition during minimally invasive cardiac surgery: detection by transcranial Doppler monitoring. Anesthesiology. 1998;88:1396-1399.

Booth JV, Landolfo KP, Chesnut LC, Bennett-Guerrero E, Gerhardt MA, Atwell DM, El-Moalem HE, Stafford-Smith M, Funk BL, Kuhn CM, Kwatra MM, Schwinn DA and the Duke Heart Center Perioperative Desensitization Group. Acute depression of myocardial b-adrenergic receptor signaling during cardiopulmonary bypass: Impairment of the adenylyl cyclase moiety. Anesthesiology. 1998;89:602-611.

Croughwell ND, Reves JG, White WD, Grocott HP, Baldwin BI, Clements FM, Davis Jr RD, Jones RH, Newman MF. Cardiopulmonary bypass time does not affect cerebral blood flow. Ann Thorac Surg. 1998;65:1226-1230.

Grocott HP, Croughwell ND, Amory DW, White WD, Kirchner JL, Newman MF. Cerebral emboli and serum S100b during cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 1998;65:1645-1649.

Grocott HP, Bart RD, Sheng H, Miura Y, Steffen R, Pearlstein RD, Warner DS. Effects of a synthetic allosteric modifier of hemoglobin oxygen affinity on outcome from global cerebral ischemia in the rat. Stroke. 1998;29:1650-1655.

Laskowitz DT, Grocott HP, Hsia A, Copeland KR. Serum markers of cerebral ischemia. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 1998;7:234-241.

Weiss L, Grocott HP, Rosania RA, Friedman A, Newman MF, Warner DS. Case 4-1998. Cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest for basilar artery aneurysm clipping. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1998;12:473-479.

Miura Y, Grocott HP, Bart RD, Pearlstein RD, Dexter F, Warner DS. Differential effects of anesthetic agents on outcome from near-complete but not incomplete global ischemia in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1998;89:391-400.

Newman MF, Laskowitz DT, Saunders AM, Grigore AM, Grocott HP. Genetic predictors of perioperative neurologic and neuropsychological injury and recovery. Sem Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1999;3:34-46.

Sarraf-Yazdi S, Sheng H, Grocott HP, Bart RD, Pearlstein RD, Steffen RP, Warner DS. Effects of RSR13, a synthetic allosteric modifier of hemoglobin, alone and in combination with dizocilpine, on outcome from transient focal cerebral ischemia in the rat. Brain Res. 1999;826:172-180.

Grocott HP, Sheng H, Miura Y, Sarraf-Yazdi S, Mackensen GB, Pearlstein RD, Warner DS. The effects of aprotinin on outcome from cerebral ischemia in the rat. Anesth Analg. 1999;88:1-7.

Garduno C, Chew S, Forbess J, Smith PK, Grocott HP. Persistent left superior vena cava and partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection: incidental diagnosis by transesophageal echocardiography during coronary artery bypass surgery. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1999;12:682-685.

Arrowsmith JE, Grocott HP, Newman MF. Neurologic risk assessment, monitoring and outcome in cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1999;13:736-743.

Mackensen GB, Nellgard B, Sarraf-Yazdi S, Dexter F, Steffen RP, Grocott HP, Warner DS. Post-ischemic RSR13 amplifies the effect of dizocilpine on outcome from transient focal cerebral ischemia in the rat. Brain Res. 2000;853:15-21.

Grigore AM, Grocott HP. Pro: epiaortic scanning should be used routinely during cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2000;14:87-90.

Grigore AM, Grocott HP, Newman MF. Anesthetic management of a patient with a brain tumor for cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2000;14:702-704.

van Wermeskerken GK, Lardenoye JH, Hill SE, Grocott HP, Phillips-Bute B, Smith PK, Reves JG, Newman MF. Intraoperative physiologic variables with outcome in cardiac surgery: Part II. Neurologic outcome. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;69:1077-1083.

Arrowsmith JE, Grocott HP, Reves JG, Newman MF. Central nervous system complications of cardiac surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2000;84:378-393.

Grocott HP, Scales G, Schinderle D, King K. A new technique for lung isolation in acute thoracic trauma. J Trauma. 2000;49:940-942.

Sharma A, Sreeram G, Erb T, Grocott HP, Slaughter TF. Leukocyte-reduced blood transfusions: Perioperative indications, adverse effects, and cost analysis. Anesth Analg. 2000;90:1315-1323.

Chew STH, Newman MF, White WD, Conlon PJ, Saunders AM, Strittmatter WJ, Landolfo K, Grocott HP, Stafford Smith M. Preliminary report on the association of apolipoprotein E polymorphisms with postoperative peak serum creatinine concentrations in cardiac surgical patients. Anesthesiology. 2000;93:325-331.

Mackensen GB, Grocott HP, Stafford Smith M. An interesting finding during transesophageal echocardiographic assessment of the mitral valve. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2000;14:227-228.

Newman MF, Stanley TO, Grocott HP. Strategies to protect the brain during cardiac surgery. Sem Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2000;4:53-64.

Sharma AD, Grocott HP. Platelet transfusion reactions: febrile nonhemolytic reaction or bacterial contamination? Diagnosis, detection, and current preventive modalities. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2000;14:460-466.

Sharma AD, Sreeram G, Erb T, Grocott HP. Solvent-detergent-treated fresh frozen plasma: a superior alternative to standard fresh frozen plasma? J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2000;14:712-717.

Sharma AD, Parmley CL, Sreeram G, Grocott HP. Peripheral nerve injuries during cardiac surgery: risk factors, diagnosis, prognosis and prevention. Anesth Analg. 2000;91:1358-1369.

Sharma AD, Bittner HB, Sreeram G, Grocott HP, Slaughter TF. Interesting right ventricular transesophageal echocardiographic findings. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2000;14:617-619.

Kilts JD, Gerhardt MA, Richardson MD, Sreeram G, Mackensen GB, Grocott HP, White WD, Davis RD, Newman MF, Reves JG, Schwinn DA, Kwatra MM. b2-adrenergic and several other G protein-coupled receptors in human Atrial Membranes Activate Both Gs and Gi. Circ Res. 2000;87:705-709.

Panten RR, Harrison JK, Warner J, Grocott HP. Aortic dissection after angioplasty and stenting of an aortic coarctation: detection by intravascular ultrasonography but not transesophageal echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2001;14:73-76.

Newman MF, Kirchner JL, Phillips-Bute B, Gaver V, Grocott HP, Jones RH, Mark DB, Reves JG, Blumenthal JA. Longitudinal assessment of neurocognitive function after coronary artery bypass surgery. New Engl J Med. 2001;344:395-402.

Grocott HP, Mackensen GB, Newman MF, Warner DS. Neurological injury during cardiopulmonary bypass in the rat. Perfusion. 2001;16:75-81.

Grigore AM, Mathew J, Grocott HP, Reves JG, Blumenthal JA, White WD, Smith PK, Jones RH, Kirchner JL, Mark DB, Newman MF, Neurological Outcome Research Group and C.A.R.E. Investigators of the Duke Heart Center. Prospective randomized trial of normothermic versus hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass on cognitive function after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Anesthesiology. 2001;95:1110-1119.

Newman MF, Sketch MH, Laskowitz DT, White WD, Kirchner J, Grocott HP, Stafford-Smith M, Jones RH, Reves JG, Saunders AM. Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms and age at first coronary artery bypass graft. Anesth Analg. 2001;92:824-829.

Ti LK, Mathew JP, Mackensen GB, Grocott HP, White WD, Reves JG, Newman MF. Effect of apolipoprotein E genotype on cerebral autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass. Stroke. 2001;32:1514-1519.

Bainbridge DT, Mackensen GB, Newman MF, Landolfo KP, Grocott HP. Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in a patient with C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency. Anesthesiology. 2001;95:795-796.

Grocott HP, Newman MF, El-Moalem H, Bainbridge D, Butler A, Laskowitz DT. Apolipoprotein E genotype differentially influences the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2001;122:622-623.

Mackensen GB, Sato Y, Nellgård B, Pineda J, Newman MF, Warner DS, Grocott HP. Cardiopulmonary bypass induces neurologic and neurocognitive dysfunction in the rat. Anesthesiology. 2001;95:1485-1491.

Newman MF, Grocott HP, Mathew JP, White WD, Landolfo K, Reves JG, Laskowitz DT, Mark DB, Blumenthal JA. Report of the substudy assessing the impact of neurocognitive function on quality of life 5 years after cardiac surgery. Stroke. 2001;32:2874-2881.

Grigore AM, Grocott HP, Mathew JP, Phillips-Bute B, Stanley TO, Butler A, Reves JG, Blumenthal JA, Newman MF and Neurological Outcome Research Group and C.A.R.E. Investigators of the Duke Heart Center. The rewarming rate and increased peak temperature alter neurocognitive outcome after cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg. 2002;94:4-10.

Grocott HP, Mackensen GB, Grigore AM, Mathew J, Reves JG, Phillips-Bute B, Smith PK, Newman MF and Neurological Outcome Research Group and C.A.R.E. Investigators of the Duke Heart Center. Postoperative hyperthermia is associated with cognitive dysfunction following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Stroke. 2002;33:537-541.

Stanley TO, Mackensen GB, Grocott HP, White WD, Blumenthal JA, Laskowitz DT, Landolfo KP, Reves JG, Mathew JP, Newman MF and Neurological Outcome Research Group and C.A.R.E. Investigators of the Duke Heart Center. The impact of postoperative atrial fibrillation on neurocognitive outcome after coronary artery bypass surgery. Anesth Analg. 2002;94:290-295.

Swaminathan M, McCreath BJ, Phillips-Bute BG, Newman MF, Mathew JP, Smith PK, Blumenthal JA, Stafford-Smith M and the Perioperative Organ Protection Research Group. Serum creatinine patterns in coronary bypass surgery patients with and without postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Anesth Analg. 2002;95:1-8.

Sato Y, Laskowitz DT, Bennett ER, Newman MF, Warner DS, Grocott HP. Differential cerebral gene expression during cardiopulmonary bypass in the rat: Evidence of apoptosis? Anesth Analg. 2002;94:1389-1394.

Reynolds JD, Amory DW, Grocott HP, White WD, Newman MF. Change in plasma glutamate concentration during cardiac surgery is a poor predictor of cognitive outcome.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2002;16:431-436.

Amory DW, Grigore A, Amory JK, Gerhardt MA, White WD, Smith PK, Schwinn DA, Reves JG, Newman MF and the Perioperative Organ Protection Research Group. Neuroprotection is associated with β-adrenergic receptor antagonists during cardiac surgery: Evidence from 2,575 patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2002;16:270-277.

Ti LK, Mackensen GB, Grocott HP, Laskowitz DT, Phillips-Bute BG, Milano CA, Hilton AK, Newman MF, Mathew JP and Neurological Outcome Research Group. Apolipoprotein E4 increases aortic atheroma burden in cardiac surgical patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;125:211-213.

Lee TWR, Grocott HP, Schwinn D, Jacobsohn E. and the Winnipeg high-spinal anesthesia group. High spinal anesthesia for cardiac surgery: effects on ß-adrenergic receptor function, stress response, and hemodynamics. Anesthesiology. 2003;98:499-510.

Ma D, Yang H, Lynch J, Franks NP, Maze M, Grocott HP. Xenon attenuates cardiopulmonary bypass-induced neurologic and neurocognitive dysfunction in the rat. Anesthesiology. 2003;98:690-698.

Djajani GN, Phillips-Bute B. Blumenthal JA, Newman MF, the Neurological Outcome Research Group and C.A.R.E. Investigators of the Duke Heart Center. Chronic exposure to nicotine does not prevent neurocognitive decline after cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2003;17:341-345.

Mathew JP, Grocott HP, Phillips-Bute B, Stafford-Smith M, Laskowitz DT, Rossignol D, Blumenthal JA, Newman MF and Neurological Outcome Research Group and C.A.R.E. Investigators of the Duke Heart Center. Lower endotoxin immunity predicts increased cognitive dysfunction in the elderly patients after cardiac surgery. Stroke. 2003;34:508-513.

Stanley TO, Grocott HP, Phillips-Bute B, Mathew JP, Landolfo KP, Newman MF. Preliminary evaluation of the Arctic SunTM temperature-controlling system during off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;75:1140-1144.

Hagen SA, Kondyra AL, Grocott HP, El-Moalem H, Bainbridge D, Mathew JP, Newman MF, Reves JG, Schwinn DA, Kwatra MM. Cardiopulmonary bypass decreases G protein-coupled receptor kinase activity and expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Anesthesiology. 2003;98:343-348.

Phillips-Bute B, Mathew J, Blumenthal JA, Welsh-Bohmer K, White WD, Mark D, Landolfo K, Newman MF, and the Neurological Outcome Research Group and C.A.R.E. Investigators of Duke Heart Center. Female gender is associated with impaired quality of life 1 year after coronary artery bypass surgery. Psychosom Med. 2003;65:944-951.

Homi HM, Mixco JM, Sheng H, Grocott HP, Pearlstein RD, Warner DS: Severe hypotension is not essential for Isoflurane neuroprotection against forebrain ischemia in mice. Anesthesiology. 2003;99:1145-1151.

Grocott HP, Nussmeier N: Neuroprotection in cardiac surgery. Anesthesiol Clin N Am. 2003;21:487-509.

Homi HM, Yokoo N, Ma D, Warner DS, Franks NP, Maze M, Grocott HP: The neuroprotective effect of xenon administration during transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. Anesthesiology. 2003;99:876-881.

Scarborough JE, White W, Derilus FE, Mathew JP, Newman MF, Landolfo KP, and the Neurologic Outcome Research Group. Combined use of off-pump techniques and a sutureless proximal aortic anastomotic device reduces cerebral microemboli generation during coronary artery bypass grafting. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;126:1561-1567.

Mackensen GB, Ti LK, Phillips-Bute BG, Mathew JP, Newman, MF, Grocott HP, and the Neurologic Outcome Research Group (NORG). Cerebral embolization during cardiac surgery: Impact of aortic atheroma burden. Br J Anaesth. 2003;91:656-661.

Bar-Yosef S, Sanders EG, Grocott HP: Asymmetric cerebral near-infrared oximetric measurements during cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2003;17:773-774.

Grocott HP, Darrow TR, Whiteheart DL, Glower DD, Stafford-Smith M. Lung isolation during port AccessTM cardiac surgery: Double-lumen endotracheal tube vs. single-lumen endotracheal tube with a bronchial blocker. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2003;17:725-727.

Lynch JR, Blessing R, White WD, Grocott HP, Newman MF, Laskowitz DT: Novel diagnostic test for acute stroke. Stroke. 2004;35:57-63.

Grocott HP, Mathew JP, Carver EH, Phillips-Bute B, Landolfo KP, Newman MF, and the Neurologic Outcome Research Group (NORG) of he Duke Heart Center. A randomized controlled trial of the arctic sun temperature management system versus conventional methods for preventing hypothermia during off-pump cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg. 2004;98:298-302.

Mackensen GB, Swaminathan M, Ti LK, Grocott HP, Phillips-Bute B, Mathew JP, Newman MF, Milano CM, Stafford-Smith M, an the Perioperative Outcomes Research Group and C.A.R.E. Investigators of Duke Heart Center. Preliminary report on the interaction of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with aortic atherosclerosis and acute nephropathy after CABG surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78:520-526.

McKinlay KH, Schinderle DB, Swaminathan M, Podgoreanu MV, Milano CA, Messier RH, El-Moalem H, Newman MF, Clements FM, Mathew JP, and the Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology Research Endeavors (CARE) Investigators of the Duke Heart Center. Predictors of inotrope use during separation from cardiopulmonary bypass. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2004;18:404-408.

Homi HM, Yang H, Pearlstein RD, Grocott HP. Hemodilution during cardiopulmonary bypass increases cerebral infarct volume following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Anesth Analg. 2004;99:974-981.

Grocott HP, Clark, JA, Homi HM, Sharma A. “Other” neurologic complications following cardiac surgery. Sem in Cardiothoracic Vascular Anesthesia. 2004;8:213-226.

Bar-Yosef S, Mathew JP, Newman MF, Landolfo K, Grocott HP, members of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology Research Endeavors (C.A.R.E.) and the Neurological Outcome Research Group (NORG). Prevention of cerebral hyperthermia during cardiac surgery by limiting on-bypass rewarming in combination with post-bypass body surface warming: A feasibility study. Anesth Analg. 2004;99:641-646.

Sreeram GM, Grocott HP, White WD, Newman MF, Stafford-Smith M. Transcranial Doppler emboli count predicts rise in creatinine following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2004;18(5):548-551.

Bar-Yosef S, Anders M, Mackensen GB, Ti LK, Mathew JP, Phillips-Bute B, Messier RH, Grocott HP. Aortic atheroma burden and cognitive dysfunction following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2004;78:1556-1563.

Yang H, Homi HM, Smith BE, Grocott HP. Cardiopulmonary bypass reduces the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in the rat. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2004;18:620-623.

Kilts JD, Grocott HP, Kwatra MM. Gαq-coupled receptors in human atrium function through protein kinase C ε and δ. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2005; 38:267-76.

Stafford-Smith M, Grocott HP. Renal medullary hypoxia during experimental cardiopulmonary bypass: A pilot study. Perfusion 2005; 20:53-8.

Grocott HP, Sato Y, Homi HM, Smith BE. The influence of xenon, nitrous oxide and nitrogen on gas bubble expansion during cardiopulmonary bypass. Eur J Anaesth 2005; 22:353-8.

Sulzer CF, Mackensen GB, Grocott HP. Con: Methylprednisolone is not indicated for patients during cardiopulmonary bypass. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2005; 19:255-8.

Stafford-Smith M, Podgoreanu M, Swaminathan M, Phillips-Bute B, Mathew JP, Hauser EH, Winn MP, Milano C, Nielsen DM, Smith M, Morris R, Newman MF, Schwinn DA, and Perioperative Genetics and Safety Outcomes Study (PEGASUS) Investigative Team. Association of genetic polymorphisms with risk of renal injury after coronary bypass graft surgery. Am J Kidney Dis 2005;45:519-530.

Grocott HP, Homi HM, Puskas F. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgery: Revisiting etiology. Sem Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2005;9:123-9.

Mathew JP, Grocott HP, McCurdy II JR, Ti LK, Davis RD, Laskowitz DT, Podgoreanu M, Swaminathan M, Lynch J, Stafford-Smith M, White WD, Newman MD and the Neurological Outcome Research Group (NORG) of the Duke Heart Center. Preoperative statin therapy does not reduce cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2005; 19:294-299.

Grocott HP, White WD, Morris RW, Podgoreanu M, Mathew JP, Nielsen DM, Schwinn DA, Newman MF for the Perioperative Genetics and Safety Outcomes Study (PEGASUS) Investigative Team. Genetic polymorphisms and the risk of stroke after cardiac surgery. Stroke 2005; 36:1854-1858.

Welsby IJ, Podgoreanu MV, Phillips-Bute B, Mathew JP, Smith PK, Newman MF, Schwinn DA, Stafford-Smith M and Perioperative Genetics and Safety Outcomes Study (PEGASUS) Investigative Team. Genetic factors contribute to bleeding after cardiac surgery. J Thromb Haemost 2005;3(6):1206-1212.

Podgoreanu MV, Michelotti GA, Sato Y, Smith MP, Lin S, Morris RW, Grocott HP, Mathew JP, Schwinn DA. Differential cardiac gene expression during cardiopulmonary bypass: Ischemia-independent upregulation of proinflammatory genes. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005; 130:330-339.

Clark JA, Bar-Yosef S, Anderson A, Newman MF, Landolfo K, Grocott HP. Postoperative hyperthermia following off-pump vs. on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2005; 19:426-429.

Clark JA, Ma D, Homi HM, Maze M, Grocott HP. Xenon and the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass in the rat. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2005; 19:488-493.

Stafford-Smith M, Lefrak EA, Qazi AG, Welsby IJ, Barber L, Hoeft A, Dorenbaum A, Mathias J, Rochon JJ, Newman MF and members of the Global Perioperative Research Organization (GPRO). Efficacy and safety of heparinase I versus protamine in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with and without cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesthesiology 2005; 103:229-240.

Hill SE, Grocott HP, Leone BJ, White WD, Newman MF and the Neurologic Outcome Research Group of the Duke Heart Center. Cerebral physiology of cardiac surgical patients treated with the perfluorocarbon emulsion, AF0144. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80:1401-1407.

Corkey WB, Phillips-Bute P, Baudet B, Mathew JP, Newman MF, Grocott HP. Brief report: The declining incidence of cerebral hyperthermia during cardiac surgery: A seven-year experience in 6,334 patients. Can J Anesth 2005;52:626-629.

Moretti EW, Morris RW, Podgoreanu M, Schwinn DA, Newman MF, Bennett E, Moulin VG, Mba UU, Laskowitz DT, the Perioperative Genetics and Safety Outcomes Study (PEGASUS) Investigative Team. APOE polymorphism is associated with risk of severe sepsis in surgical patients. Crit Care Med 2005;33:2521-2526.

Grocott HP. Genetics and outcome after cardiac surgery. J Extracopor Technol 2006;38:49-51.

Grocott HP. Glucose and outcome after cardiac surgery: What are the issues? J Extracopor Technol 2006;38:65-67.

Grocott HP. Perioperative temperature and cardiac surgery. J Extracopor Technol 2006;38:77-80.

Dieleman JM, de Lange F, Houston RJF, Biessels G, Bär PR, Mackensen GB, Grocott HP, Kalkman CJ. Cardiopulmonary bypass and long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in the rat. Life Sc 2006;79/6:551-558.

Phillips-Bute B, Mathew JP, Blumenthal JA, Grocott HP, Laskowitz DT, Jones RH, Mark DB, Newman MF for the Neurologic Outcome Research Group (NORG). Association of neurocognitive function and quality of life 1 year after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Psychosom Med 2006;68:369-375

Podgoreanu M, White WD, Morris RW, Mathew JP, Stafford-Smith M, Welsby IJ, Grocott HP, Milano CA, Newman MF, Schwinn DA. Inflammatory gene polymorphisms and risk of postoperative myocardial infarction following cardiac surgery. Circulation 2006;114:275-81.

Shann KG, Likosky DS, Murkin JM, Baker RA, Grocott HP, Baribeau VR, O’Connor GT, DeFoe GR, Rosinski DJ, Dickinson TA, Sellke FW, Gardner TJ, Willcox TW. An evidence-based review of the practice of cardiopulmonary bypass in adults. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2006;132-283-90.

Newman MF, Mathew JP, Grocott HP, Mackensen GB, Monk T, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Laskowitz D, Mark DB, Blumenthal JA for the Neurologic Outcome Research Group. Central nervous system injury after cardiac surgery. Lancet 2005; 368:694-703.

Yoshitani K, de Lange F, Ma Q, Grocott HP, Mackensen GB. Reduction in microbubble size using perfluorobcarbons during cardiopulmonary bypass in the rat. Anesth Analg 2006; 103:1089-1093.

Sulzer CF, Milano CA, Swaminathan M, Grocott HP. Left ventricular endocardial irregularity: Evaluation using epicardial echocardiography. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2006; available on-line.

Grocott HP. Genetic influences on cerebral outcome after cardiac surgery. Sem Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2006;10:291-296.

Bennett-Guerrero E, Grocott HP, Levy JH, Stierer KA, Hogue CW, Cheung AT, Newman MF, Carter AA, Rossignol DP, Collard CD. A Phase II double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose study of Eritoran (E5564), a lipid A antagonist, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg 2007;104:378-383.

Welsby IJ, Jones WL, Arepally G, de Lange F, Yoshitani K, Phillips-Bute B, Grocott HP, Becker R, Mackensen GB. Effect of combined anticoagulation using heparin and bivalirudin on the hemostatic and inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass in the rat. Anesthesiology 2007;106:295-301.

Bar-Yosef S, Cozart HB, Phillips-Bute B, Mathew JP, Grocott HP. Preoperative low molecular weight heparin reduces heparin responsiveness during cardiac surgery. Can J Anesth 2007;54:107-113.

Grocott HP. Transfusion thresholds: Complex risk and benefit considerations. J Extracopor Technol 2006;38:330-332.

Swaminathan M, Grocott HP, Mackensen GB, Podgoreanu MV, Glower DD, Mathew JP. ‘Sandblasting’ effect of aortic cannula on arch atheroma during cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg 2007;104:1350-1351

Mathew JP, Podgoreanu M, Grocott HP, White WD, Morris RW, Stafford-Smith M., Mackensen GB, Rinder CS, Blumenthal JA, Schwinn DA, Newman MF for the PEGASUS Investigative Team. Genetic variants in p-selectin and c-reactive protein influence susceptibility to cognitive decline after cardiac surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;49:1934-42.

Mitchell JD, Grocott HP, Phillips-Bute B, Mathew JP, Newman MF, Bar-Yosef S. Cytokine secretion after cardiac surgery and its relationship to postoperative fever. Cytokine 2007;38:37-42.

Mathew JP, Mackensen GB, Phillips-Bute B, Stafford-Smith M, Podgoreanu MV, Grocott HP, Hill SE, Smith PK, Blumenthal JA, Reves JG, Newman MF; for the Neurologic Outcome Research Group (NORG) of the Duke Heart Center. Effects of Extreme Hemodilution during Cardiac Surgery on Cognitive Function in the Elderly. Anesthesiology 2007;107:577-584.

Puskas F, Grocott HP, White WD, Mathew JP, Newman MF, Bar-Yosef S. Intraoperative hyperglycemia and cognitive decline after cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2007 84:1467-73

Grocott HP, Yoshitani K. Neuroprotection during cardiac surgery. J Anesthes 2007; 21:367-77

Swaminathan M, Morris RW, De Meyts DD, Podgoreanu MV, Jollis JG, Grocott HP, Milano CA, Newman MF, Mathew JP. Deterioration of regional wall motion immediately after coronary artery bypass graft surgery is associated with long-term major adverse cardiac events. Anesthesiology 2007;107:739-45

Maze M, Cibelli M, Grocott HP. Taking the lead in research into postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Anesthesiology 2008;108:1-2

de Lange F. Yoshitani K, Proia AD, Mackensen GB, Grocott HP. Perfluorocarbon administration during cardiopulmonary bypass in rats: an inflammatory link to adverse outcome? Anesth Analg 2008;106:24-31

de Lange F, Jones WL, Mackensen GB, Grocott HP. The Effect of limited rewarming and postoperative hypothermia on cognitive function in a rat cardiopulmonary bypass model. Anesth Analg 2008;106:739-45

Grocott HP, Pharmacologic neuroprotection: the search continues. J Extra Corpor Technol 2007 Dec;39(4):296-301

Grocott HP. Hyperglycemia and postoperative cognitive dysfunction: another call for better glycemic control? Can J Anaesth 2008;55:140-5

Conlon N, Grocott HP, Mackensen GB. Neuroprotection during cardiac surgery. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2008;6:503-20

Grocott HP. Oxygen Toxicity During One-Lung Ventilation: Is It Time to Re-Evaluate Our Practice? Anesthesiology Clin 2008;26:273-280

de Lange F, Yoshitani K, Podgoreanu M, Grocott HP, Mackensen GB. A novel survival model of cardioplegic arrest and cardiopulmonary bypass in rats: a methodology paper. J Cardiothorac Surg 2008;3:51

[in press] Phillips-Bute B, Mathew JP, Blumenthal JA, Morris RW, Podgoreanu MV, Smith M, Stafford-Smith M, Grocott HP, Schwinn DA, Newman MF; for the Perioperative Genetics and Safety Outcomes (PEGASUS) Investigative Team. Relationship of genetic variability and depressive symptoms to adverse events after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Psychosom Med 2008;70:953-59

Mathew JP, Mackensen GB, Phillips-Bute B, Grocott HP, Glower DD, Laskowitz DT, Blumenthal JA, Newman MF for the Neurologic Outcome Research Group (NORG) of the Duke Heart Centre. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Study of Neuroprotection with Lidocaine in Cardiac Surgery. Stroke 2009;40:880-7Mathew


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